Internet Protocol

   The IP — (English Internet Protocol the gateway report) marshrutiziruemyj the network report, a basis of a stack of reports TCP/IP.

   Report IP (RFC 791) is used for unreliable data (divided(shared) on so-called packages) from one unit of a network to another. It means, that at a level of this report (the third level of network model OSI) is not given guarantees of safe delivery of a package up to the addressee. In particular, packages can come not in that order in which have been sent, to appear damaged(injured) or to not arrive at all. Guarantees of correct delivery of packages give reports of higher (transport) level of network model OSI for example, TCP which use IP as transport.

   In a modern network the Internet is used IP the fourth version, also known as IPv4. In report IP of this version to each unit of a network the IP-address in length 4 octets (sometimes speak "bajta" is put in conformity, meaning the widespread eight-bit minimal addressed fragment of a computer memory). Thus computers in podsetyakh are united by the general(common) initial bats of the address. The quantity(amount) of these bats, the general(common) for given podseti, refers to as a mask podseti (division of space of addresses on classes A, B earlier was used, C; the class of a network was defined(determined) by a range of values of the senior octet and defined(determined) number of addressed units in the given network, classless addressing) is now used.

   Now the sixth version of the report IPv6 which allows to address considerably a lot of units, than IPv4 is put into operation. This version differs the raised(increased) word length of the address which have been built in by an opportunity of enciphering and some other features. Transition with IPv4 on IPv6 is connected with labour-consuming work of operators of communication(connection) and prozvoditelej the software and cannot be executed in one stage. On the beginning of 2007 at the Internet was present about 760 networks working under report IPv6. For comparison, for same time in address space IPv4 was present more than 203 thousand networks, but in IPv6 networks much larger, rather than in IPv4.

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