The IP-address



   The IP-address — (reduction from English Internet Protocol Address) the unique identifier (address) of the device (usually computer), connected to a local network or the Internet.

   The IP-address represents 32-bit (under version IPv4) or 128-bit (under version IPv6) binary number. The convenient form of record (IPv4 IP-address is record in the form of four decimal numbers (from 0 up to 255), divided(undressed) by points, for example, 192.168.0.1. (or 128.10.2.30 the traditional decimal form of representation of the address, and 10000000 00001010 00000010 00011110 the binary form of representation of the same address).

   IP-addresses represent the basic type of addresses on the basis of which the network level of report IP transfers(transmits) packages between networks. The IP-address is appointed(nominated) the manager during konfigurirovaniya computers and routers.

   The IP-address consists of two parts: numbers of a network and number of unit. In case of the isolated network its(her) address can be chosen by the manager from blocks of addresses specially reserved for such networks (192.168.0.0/16, 172.16.0.0/12 or 10.0.0.0/8). If the network should work as a component of the Internet the address of a network stands out the provider or p the Internet-registrar (Regional Internet Registry, RIR). According to exists five RIR: ARIN, serving Northern America; APNIC, serving the countries of Southeast Asia; AfriNIC, serving the countries of Africa; LACNIC, serving the countries of South America and pool of Caribbean sea; and RIPE NCC, serving the Europe, the Central Asia, the Near East. Regional registrars receive numbers of independent systems and greater(big) blocks of addresses at ICANN, and then give out numbers of independent systems and blocks of addresses of the smaller size local the Internet-registrars (Local Internet Registries, LIR), usually being large providers.

   Number of unit in report IP is appointed(nominated) irrespective of the local address of unit. The router by definition enters at once into some networks. Therefore each port of a router has own IP-address. The final unit also can enter into some IP-networks. In this case the computer should have some IP-addresses, on number of network communications(connections). Thus, the IP-address characterizes not a separate computer or a router, and one network connection.



















                 
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